Intrarenal control of renal function is by tubuloglomerular feedback and by glomerulotubular balance. In tubu- loglomerular feedback, Na/Cl delivery to the. Tubuloglomerular feedback is an adaptive mechanism that links the rate of glomerular . Intrinsic—Tubuloglomerular Feedback and Glomerulotubular Balance. Glomerulotubular Balance refers to the phenomenon whereby a constant layer of protection if mechanisms of tubuloglomerular feedback, that normalize rates.

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Angiotensin II constricts preferentially the efferent arterioles, as the efferent valance are much more sensitive to angiotensin II. Constricting the smooth muscle cells in the afferent arteriole, results in a reduced concentration of chloride at the MD.

Compliance Vascular resistance Pulse Perfusion. An increase in GFR causes a proportionate increase in fluid reabsorption from the proximal tubules and loop of Henle. Glomerulotubular balance can be thought of as an additional layer of protection if mechanisms of tubuloglomerular feedbackthat normalize rates of GFR, momentarily fail or are slow to tubuloglommerular triggered.

Efferent arteriolar constriction increases glomerular capillary pressure. The macula densa’s detection of elevated sodium chloride concentration in the tubular lumen, which leads to a decrease in GFR, is based on the concept of purinergic signaling.

The drop in GFR causes a tubuloglomerular feedback-mediated arteriolar dilation, restoring GFR and also increasing renal blood flow. Journal of Mathematical Biology. The Mechanisms of Body Function.

Reduced NaCl uptake via the NKCC2 at the macula densa leads to increased renin release, which leads to restoration of plasma volume, and to dilation of the afferent arterioles, which leads to increased renal plasma flow and increased GFR.


In glomerulotubular balance, filtration at the glomerulus alters the oncotic pressure of the plasma that exits the glomerulus and flows into the peritubular capillaries. As the TAL ascends through the renal baalnce, it encounters its own glomerulusbringing the macula densa to rest at the angle between the afferent and efferent arterioles.

Tubuloglomerular feedback is one of several mechanisms the kidney uses to regulate glomerular filtration rate GFR. A high protein diet affects the feedback activity by making the single nephron glomerular filtration rate higher, and the Na and Cl concentrations in early distal tubule fluid lower.

The macula densa is a collection of densely packed epithelial cells at the junction of the thick ascending blaance TAL and distal convoluted tubule DCT. This signal is transmitted to the afferent arteriole. Factors that increase TGF sensitivity include: Active transepithelial transport is used by the thick ascending limb TAL cells to pump NaCl to the surrounding interstitium from luminal fluid.

A higher fluid flow rate in the TAL allows less time for dilution of the tubular fluid so that MD chloride concentration increases. It involves the concept of purinergic signalingin which an increased distal tubular sodium chloride concentration causes a basolateral release of adenosine from the macula densa cells. Views Read Edit View history. Distal tubule NaCl delivery is proportionate to glomerular filtration rate.


Efferent arterioles appear to play a lesser role; experimental evidence supports both vasoconstriction and vasodilation, with perhaps the former in the lower range and the latter in the higher range of Tbuuloglomerular concentrations 2.

The increased load on the kidney of high-protein diet is a result of an increase in reabsorption of NaC. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.

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Pulse pressure Systolic Diastolic Mean arterial pressure Jugular venous pressure Portal venous pressure. This page was last edited on 16 Decemberat The kidney maintains the electrolyte concentrations, osmolality, and acid-base balance of blood plasma within the narrow limits that are compatible with effective cellular function; and the kidney participates in blood pressure regulation and in the maintenance of steady whole-organism water volume [4].

Skip to main content. The Tubular fluid is diluted because the cell’s walls are water-impermeable and do not lose water as NaCl is actively reabsorbed.

Glomerulotubular balance, tubuloglomerular feedback, and salt homeostasis.

Factors that decrease TGF sensitivity include: Secretion clearance Pharmacokinetics Clearance of medications Urine flow rate. The afferent arteriole cells release renin, leading to intrarenal angiotensin II formation. Annual Review of Physiology.

Physiology of the cardiovascular system. Solvent drag sodium chloride urea glucose oligopeptides protein.