Building Shapes out of Points, Lines, and Faces. IndexedLineSet example. [ ]. Using Version of the Virtual Reality Modeling Language to: Internet/VRML. Design interactive, 3-D objects and scenes; ISBN Add realistic. A list of all the VRML nodes can also be found in Appendix A. #VRML V utf8 # – a yellow box Shape { geometry Box { } appearance .. Authoring Compelling, Efficient VRML Worlds, a SIGGRAPH 97 course by David.

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Each node type accepts and generates different types of events, these are all listed in the Node Reference section in Appendix A. When a viewer clicks on a shape in the same group as the sensor node, it generates events that can be used to start or control animations. Hence, the world will appear identical to example1. The purpose of the Group node is to group together other nodes. ckurs

To simulate a semi-transparent glass table top, the transparency value in the shape’s Material node is made 0. All VRML files must start with this header. In order to cuors translaterotate or scale an object the Transform node is used. The LOD node groups together the nodes that form the alternative representations of the object and specifies the viewing distances at which the browser should switch between representations. The LOD level of detail node enables scenes to be displayed more efficiently by the VRML browser, by providing high and low detailed versions of an object.

There are three types of lighting nodes in VRML. The source of the sound is defined using either an AudioClip or MovieTexture node. The keyValue field contains courd list of corresponding eventOut values for each key value. However, most VRML browsers also provide a menu in their user interface to cokrs the user to select between the different predefined viewpoints. The ambientIntensity value is used to simulate ambient indirect lighting of the object.

Node names are required when reusing nodes and when defining animations, both of which are described later. The Material node specifies the colour and reflective properties courd an object with six fields.


In the example, the comment describes the contents of the scene. Using a common unit of measurement makes it easier to share models. The field name is followed by three values that define the lengths of the sides, parallel to the X, Y and Z axes respectively, with the centre of the box at the origin. In order to cors the link the user must click courz any of the objects defined in the children field of the Anchor node.

On-Line Examples

Note that the light from VRML light sources is not stopped when it hits an object, but goes straight through, so there are no shadows. Typically, a program script will describe how an eventOut value is determined when an eventIn is received. Next is the interface declaration, which is enclosed in square brackets. The first Transform node line 29moves the globe’s base to 0, 1.

The Shape node contains two fields, geometry and appearanceeach of which require other nodes as their values. Defining backgrounds, light sources and viewpoints. DirectionalLight is used to simulate illumination from a far away light source, such as the sun. Each node has fields to specify the dimensions of the shape and in addition, the Cone and Cylinder nodes have fields which control whether particular sides are shown.

The OrientationInterpolator line 98 defines a steady rotation of the box shape about its vertical y-axis. Animation occurs in a VRML world, when the properties of a node, as defined by its field values are changed. The VisibilitySensor detects when a defined box-shaped region is visible from the viewer’s current position and orientation. The VRML specification recommends that metres are used as units of distance. Interpolator nodes describe the changes that occur during an animation.

IndexedLineSet example

Fields can be written in any order. Summary The two example worlds have been used to introduce many of vrmp main features of the VRML language, including: The Switch node can also be used to group together different versions of an object.


The utf keyword refers to the UTF-8 international character set used in the file. The material field takes the Material node as its value. These web sites provide an excellent introduction to the VRML language: The ProximitySensor node senses when the viewer enters or moves within a defined box-shaped region. The Appearance node has three fields, materialtexture and textureTransform. Increasing this value will make the object appear more shiny. The rest of a VRML file consists of a list of nodes, each of which contain part of the information that describes the whole scene, for example, it may define a shape or light source or particular properties of an object, such as its colour or coordinates.

Node type names start with a capital letter, field names begin with a lower case letter. However, there are various techniques that can be used to “fake” shadows, such as texture mapping. Anchor Node line 56 The Anchor node creates a hyperlink to a resource specified by the url field of coura node. To change one of these values it necessary to send the node an event created by another node. The Appearance node then in turn contains another node, called Curs.

First, the 3D coordinates of the square are listed using the Coordinate node, then the coordIndex field describes the order in which the coordinate points should be joined together to form a single face.

Most VRML browsers implement collision detection in ‘walk’ or ‘fly’ viewing modes, to prevent the user moving through objects. These are summarized in the following sections.

The example world contains a single point light source, located at 10 0 The value of the whichChoice field determines which version is displayed.