Jatropha curcas L. (Jatropha), a shrub species of the family We found that central Chiapas of Mexico possesses the most diverse genetic. Classification of accessions of Jatropha curcas L. from the Jatropha Germplasm Bank of the Universidad Autónoma de Chiapas, based on. To investigate the genetic diversity and structure of Jatropha curcas L. oilseed plant, in this study, native populations from Chiapas, Mexico.

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The genetic diversity of J. It is estimated that animals sex chromosomes appeared — million years ago Charlesworth, Accuracy of estimated phylogenetic trees from molecular data.

One important question is as follows: Sex chromosomes in plants.

Genetic Tracing of Jatropha curcas L. from Its Mesoamerican Origin to the World

Insects observed in the marked panicles were S. We found female, male and hermaphrodite flowers in the study accessions Fig. Identification of the two Veracruz accessions that genetically close to African and Ajtropha Jatropha showed that Veracruz was an important junction between Mesoamerica and the Old World for the Jatropha transmission.

O ratio is an indicator of the reproductive system. All of them were expected to have retrotransposed more recently than other members. We performed population structure and phylogenetic analyses on Jatropha including African and Asian accessions.

Genetic divergence of Jatropha in Mesoamerica. For male and hermaphrodite flowers the number of filaments, anthers and pollen count was determined. There is a high diversity and abundance of bees 19 species and flies 9 species. Remarkably, 39 Asian and African accessions were almost monomorphic and homozygote in both kinds of markers, except for five Vietnamese accessions, each of which was heterozygote in a single marker.

The most abundant insects were Hymenoptera and Diptera, which is consistent with some previous studies natropha other areas Luo et al. Darbar BashaMulpuri Sujatha Euphytica Data Availability The following information was supplied regarding data availability:.


Genetic Diversity in Jatropha curcas Populations in the State of Chiapas , Mexico

The two Veracruz accessions also belong to Group B. Nonetheless, there is a lack of information about inflorescences and flowers traits, which are considered highly conserved and could be used as estimators of J.

Saving of carbon emissions depends on how biofuels are produced. For this, the time of arrival at the flower was taken into account, the time they stayed, the resource used nectar or pollenand movement among flowers of the same inflorescence and between inflorescences of the same or another plant. Genetic Groups in Mesoamerica The genetic constitutions of all the Mesoamerican accessions were examined by structure analysis.

Many commercial plantations, however, have not resulted in as high yields as were anticipated because of the limited productivity Sanderson, ; Singh et al.

Production of Jatropha cultivars with high productivity in Africa and Asia will help in the mass commercial cultivation of Jatropha there. One of them consists mainly of accessions from central Chiapas. Phenotypic Variation Number of inflorescences cuecas plant, number of female flowers per plant, ratio of female to male flowers and seed yield g per plant jatrkpha representative curca from seven Mexican states [Chiapas 57Guerrero 4Michoacan 4Morelos 3Oaxaca 7Veracruz 20and Yucatan 5 ] were measured individually at the Rosario Izapa Experimental Farm, INIFAP Chiapas, Mexico.

Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. The polylectic behavior of stingless bees has been reported in previous work, and this is due to the different sources of jatrropha that they forage for food.

Number of Retrotransposons Presence of each of the eight retrotransposons was judged by presence of the amplified band using a FLK primer and a LTR primer, and in the case of full-length members, also by absence of the band using FLK primers at both sides of the retrotransposon.


Phylogenetic hypothesis of the evolution of jatrophaa in the tropical tree Jatropha curcas L. All data analyses were performed based on the genotype data matrix.

Plants that has mostly male flowers, with a few female and hermaphrodite flowers. The final results were shown as a three-dimensional plot X, Y, and Z represent the three principal coordinates of all the accessions.

We further narrowed down the center of diversity to central Chiapas. Principal component 2 C2 B accounted for Fences and medicines are the likely reasons why the Portuguese shipped the plant to Africa and Asia Sabandar et al.

The relationship between populations and centroids were plotted in Fig.

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Genetic Improvement and BiotechnologyVol. This geographical distribution of Jatropha genetic groups in Mesoamerica has not been reported before. Tropical trees and forests. For female and hermaphrodite flowers the number of ovules and the size of the pistil and ovary were determined.

Biplot of discriminant scores based on discriminant functions 1 and 2. For each of the treatments 20 inflorescences were employed, one per plant in total 20 plants for this experimentwhich were covered, except in OpP, with tulle mesh bags of 1 mm mesh size.

Moreover, the pollen adhered to the legs of the insects was identified by microscopy. State of the art of genetic diversity research in Jatropha curcas.

Cultivars improved in the productivity will contribute to expand mass commercial cultivation of Jatropha in Africa and Asia to increase biofuel production, and finally will support in the battle against the climate change. Population chiaoas software for teaching and research.