: Differend: Phrases in Dispute (Theory and History of Literature) ( ): Jean-Francois Lyotard: Books. This original study examines Jean-François Lyotard’s philosophical concept of the differend and details its unexplored implications for literature. it provides a. Expressing the Inexpressible: Lyotard and the Differend Jacob M. Held Marquette University Department of Philosophy Coughlin Hall P.O. Box
|Published (Last):||7 October 2016|
|PDF File Size:||15.25 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||19.28 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
His father, Jean-Pierre Lyotard, was a sales representative. The proliferation of idioms would appear to diffedend greater op portunities for expressing wrongs. An event, if it occurs, is not simply unforseeable within any of these, but in fact explodes our ability to represent them within any language game or phrase regimen.
He presents us with two alternative views of society that have been popular in this century: Space can be broken into ordered elements related to each other in a structured and organised way, such as by mapping it with a three dimensional grid.
Jean François Lyotard
A Marxist PerspectiveCambridge: In Just Gaminghe analyses situations where questions of justice and judgement arise in terms of language games. Lyotard is clear in stating that the inexpressible nature of the dif ferend necessarily makes it the case that one cannot communicate that a differen d has occurred. The proper name may fix reference, but does nothing to fix sense.
Ultimately one m ust be able to turn a victim into a plaintiff and thereby afford all of those wh o have suffered an injustice the ability to express their concerns in an arena o f discourse in which restitutions can be made. This book is, by Lyotard’s own estimation, both his most philosophical and most important.
As Antonio Negri and Michael Hardt point out, phrasing oneself in terms of the dom inant discourse can be more liberating than the post-modern alternative, namely Lyotard’s paganism. Furthermore, Lyotard introduces a notion of ‘terror’ that he develops more fully in his later works, indicating the suppression of Lyotad culture by the imposition of foreign French cultural forms.
Expressing the Inexpressible: Lyotard and the Differend | Jacob Held –
In the second part the focus shifts from Husserl to the work of Maurice Merleau-Ponty. The political import of differends is easy to see: Lyotard suddenly focuses on the linguistic mechanics of the dehumanization of the Jews only to withdraw into long drawn out philosophical ruminations until suddenly he reverts and produces a few new paragraphs on the Holocaust. The referent the wrong, etc. This would result in Discourse, Figure It is written in a bewildering combination of styles lyotad times reading more like an avant-garde novel than a philosophical texta method Lyotard uses in an attempt to overcome difcerend limitations he sees in traditional academic theory.
From Husserl to Lyotard London: For Lyotard, structures and institutions tend to totalize and exploit intensities for their own good, and thus lay claim to all proper interpretations of these intensities. The discussion of signs recalls Lyotard’s analysis of the nihilism of semiotics in Libidinal Economywhere he refers to Augustine, and what is perhaps the main theme of this work – Augustine’s writing as a study in the phenomenology of time — is referred to in the earlier paper “The Sublime and the Avant-Garde.
Paganism Lyotard develops the notion of paganism in “Lessons in Paganism” reprinted in The Lyotard ReaderJust Gaming and various other short works of the late seventies. Lyotard calls the way phrases are linked together in series, one after the other, the concatenation of phrases. It focuses on the experimentation of the avant-garde, and Lyotard takes as privileged difrerend Abstract Expressionism and particularly the work of Barnett Newman.
One cannot claim, “Here is a wrong I just cannot express it. Furthermore, in post-industrial society information has become a primary mode of production, and Lyotard is concerned that in the interests of maximising profits information will become increasingly privatised by corporations.
Furthermore, Lyotard’s insistence that the freeing of dissimulated libidinal forces can only be passively done and dfferend actively controlled is motivated by his identification of wilful acts with the organisational subject. Here is how Lyotard famously defines the postmodern more luotard than being merely a disbelief in metanarratives:. This stage in the transformation of the libidinal band represents the formation of rational thought, dominated by binary logic and the law of noncontradiction.
Furthermore, postmodern science is undermining legitimation by performativity by retheorizing the way science itself develops: If one wishes to guarantee that a consensus not exclude others then a criteria n eeds to be imposed on the procedure by which a community comes to a consensus. According to the performativity criterion, society is seen as a system which must aim for efficient functioning, and this efficiency is a kind of terror which threatens to exclude inefficient elements.
Kearney, Richard, Poetics of Imagining: Rather, when attempting to differemd a wrong what must occur is that the original feeling must be translated into a phrase, or idiom, in the dominant discourse.
They can be linked one onto the other in accordance with an end fixed by the a genre of discourse …Genres of discourse supply rules for linking together heterogeneous phrases, rules that are proper for attaining certain goals: To better see why the above-mentioned problems are so detrimental to Lyotar d’s project consider the following. When Lyotard first mentions the differend he does so lyotad Auschwitz a s an example.
Jean-François Lyotard: “Le Différend,” Part One
Georges Van Den Abbeele Manchester: However, a problem presents itself. This led him to his strongest denunciation of Marxism yet in Libidinal Economy Hence both progressive and conservative political views are found flailing in diagnosing the problems of the political, especially when facing the devaluation of all values in consumer culture.
In examining the status of knowledge in postmodernity, Lyotard is examining the political as well as epistemological aspects of knowledge legitimationand he sees the basic social bond – the diffwrend relation required for society to exist – as moves within language games. Des dispositifs pulsionnelsParis: Despite its popularity, however, this book is in fact one of his more minor works. Lyotard makes three particularly important observations about language games.
It is perhaps misleading of Lyotard to say that paganism is judgement without criteria; for it differrend judgement only without universal criteria.
Lyotard uses the concepts of a phrase universe and of the difference between presentation and situation in order to show how phases can carry meanings and yet be indeterminate. The habit of a Marxist analysis existed as a subterranean subtext with in The Postmodern Condition: Sim, Stuart, Lyotard and the Inhuman Cambridge: On the other hand Lyotard s uggests that it is the philosopher’s job to proliferate idioms thereby affording greater opportunities to express the injustice signified by the differend, differemd in so doing provide a means by which one can right the wrong that has been done.
In difverend Evacuated,” written after the end of the occupation, Lyotard regretfully asks why a socialist revolution did not take place, concluding that the social and political upheavals resulted in an opportunistic struggle for power rather than a class-based action.
A wrong on the other hand is inexpressible. Discours, figureParis: The book itself contains numbered paragraphs, building on arguments he had been making in the years leading up to the work.